SharePoint Security Policies are management instructions indicating a course of action, a guiding principle, or an appropriate procedure that is expedient, prudent, or advantageous. Policies are high-level statements that provide guidance to workers who must make present and future decisions. It would also be correct to say that these SharePoint policies are generalized requirements that must be written down and communicated to certain groups of people inside, and in some cases, outside, the organization. Although SharePoint security policies vary considerably by organization, they typically include general statements of goals, objectives, beliefs, ethics, controls, and worker responsibilities.
Policies are higher-level requirement statements than standards, although both types of management instructions require compliance. Policies provide general instructions, while standards provide specific technical requirements. SharePoint standards cover details such as systems design concepts, implementation steps, software interface mechanisms, software algorithms, and other specifics. Standards provide a measure for comparison in quantitative or qualitative terms. Standards would, for example, define the number of secret key bits required in an encryption algorithm. Policies, on the other hand, would simply define the need to use an approved encryption process when sensitive information is sent over public networks such as the Internet from your SharePoint environment.
Standards will need to be changed considerably more often than policies because the manual procedures, organizational structures, business processes, and information systems technologies mentioned in standards change so rapidly. This is in contrast to policies, which are intended to last for many years.
Policies are generally aimed at a wider audience than standards. For example, a policy requiring the use of computer virus packages would apply to all personal computer users, but a standard requiring the use of public key digital certificates could be directed only at staff that conducts organizational business over the Internet.
Policies are distinct from, and at a considerably higher-level than procedures, sometimes called SharePoint standard operating procedures (SSOP). Procedures are specific operational steps or methods that workers must employ to achieve a certain goal. A policy statement describes only the general means for addressing a specific problem. Policies should not become detailed or lengthy, otherwise, it becomes a procedure or can become too intermingled with procedures. For instance, in many information technology departments there are specific procedures for performing back-ups of server hard drives. In this example, a policy could describe the need for back-ups, for storage off-site, and for safeguarding the back-up media (using encryption, physical security, etc.). A standard could define the software to be used to perform back-ups and how to configure this software. A procedure could describe how to use the back-up software, the timing for making back-ups, and other ways that humans interact with the back-up system (how to get approvals by management, how to transfer the storage media to a transportation company, etc.).
One of the common problems observed in policy development and review involves the combination of policies, standards, and procedures in a single document. When it comes time to update the document, the process is needlessly time-consuming and confusing. This is because the three different types of documents all have different levels of detail and focus on different things.
The combination of policies, standards, and procedures in a single document is also not recommended because it can make the location of relevant information much more difficult for the reader. This combination approach also is inefficient in terms of distribution because a lot of irrelevant information is sent to people who really don’t need it. To simplify document maintenance, usage, and cross-referencing, be sure to use separate documents for policies, standards, and procedures.
Policies are also different from controls (also known as countermeasures, security measures, and safeguards). A control is a device or a mechanism used to regulate or guide the operation of a machine, apparatus, or system. An example of a control would be encryption of sensitive data stored on floppy disks. In many cases, policies provide broad objectives that are met with controls. For instance, a policy prohibiting actual or apparent conflicts of interest could be partially met via a control requiring employees to sign a statement indicating they have read the code of conduct and agree to comply. Likewise, in many instances, control measures are dictated directly by policy. For example, a requirement to sign a statement of compliance with a code of conduct might itself be a policy.
In general, policies state the areas on which management attention should focus. For example, a policy might dictate that all software be fully tested before being used for production processing. Management, in most instances, will need to make a number of decisions about controls in order to meet the requirements of a policy. For example, the control measures in support of this testing policy could include software change control systems, a standard development process methodology, documentation standards, and a set of standard testing procedures. The policy may be deliberately vague about the control measures to be used so that management retains the latitude to change controls as evolving technology and business conditions dictate.