In 1995 Nonaka and Takeuchi completed a model called SECI, short for socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization.
This model discusses organizational knowledge and how it can be structured and influenced by the social nature of the organization. It also discusses that tacit and explicit forms of knowledge are intertwined on many levels. Then you have Cook and Brown who don’t agree with the SECI model. Instead they use a metaphor about generative dance that was introduced in 1999.
This discussed how there is dialect that affects the relationship between the knowledge that we know and it as an object. This explores the concept that you do need both of them in place for an organization rather than just promoting the use of one over the other. Alavi and Leidner have their own idea about it that they offered in 2001.
They explain that tacit and explicit states of knowledge are dependent upon each other. They are also used to reinforce the overall qualities of knowledge that are part of a business. They believe that the background for structuring the business comes from the tacit knowledge that is in place. This has to be there in order for the rest of it to all be successfully interpreted.
When you take a look at them, you will find that both knowledge and information are concepts that must be in place. However, it is the experience, the way that it is interpreted, and also the way that it is reflected upon that allow certain types of knowledge to be created. So even though data and other information can add more value, that initial knowledge must be in place for it to be valuable.
Knowledge must be in place in order for information to be translated. As Starbuck acknowledges, there are many experts out there in the field of information that know how to enhance their value through tacit knowledge. They do this by applying the concepts from explicit knowledge. These professionals take information that they get from interviews and from reading materials.
They take that information and interpret it as well as analyze it. This allows them to create reports and to give presentations of such information. It is important to note that many experts in various fields out there learn through their own experiences but also be learning about experiences of others.
Knowledge allows us to continue to grow and to move forward because by reviewing such information something is added to it. However, tacit knowledge has to be properly utilized in order for explicit forms to give the best value. That is why we are going to discuss both knowledge and information. We are going to cover tacit and explicit knowledge. These are resources for any type of business out there. Hopefully you will come to see the reason why they have to be reinforced by the other in order to offer the best benefits.
Any organizations out there can be considered some type of formal structure. This is because they have a goal that they are trying to achieve. Generally that main goal is one which is driven by making money. A business has to make money in order to get a return on what has been invested both in the way of time and money.
Knowledge should always be considered an asset that a business has access to. Part of the overall goal should be to get all they can from the types of knowledge that are within it. The overall value here often is calculated by taking the information that easy of the employees have. When they have the right knowledge it is going to give the entity as a whole a huge benefit over the competition.
In 1984 Wernerfelt developed a similar idea in his resource based ideals. The thoughts he was trying to convey covered the need to provide a rational way to explain why some businesses have the ability to continually stay on top. What advantages did they have over the others in that same niche? Why were they are able make more money time and time again? It comes down to being able to maximize the types of knowledge that are internal for that business.
You may not realize it but knowledge is actually a type of resource that any business has a great deal of control over. It can be considered an extension of what they already have in place. For a business to realize the value of knowledge is where the situation can improve. Once offering ongoing information and knowledge is made a priority it will enhance what that business already has to offer.
There are plenty of ways to make that happen for any type of business. Being able to effectively manage what is going on means that knowledge can be presented, transferred to employees, applied on the job, and stored for access whenever they may need it. The fact that knowledge allows the development of better processes within an organization means it can become more efficient. Of course these leads us into a great question that deserves some attention. How can a business measure the knowledge that it has to offer employees?