Computing Economics And Social Structure

Today’s financial markets experience larger swings partly because of program trading, where large shareholders utilize computers to choose when to purchase or offer stock in big amounts. When the defined conditions are fulfilled and the programs trigger, the big deals can trigger other programs to trigger, leading to a spiral of selling and purchasing that produces the huge swings in the market.

On the other hand, computer system trading has actually also enabled more people to participate in the stock exchange with low-priced Internet stock trading sites.

There has actually been a meteoric rise in online company, a phenomenon that is termed e-commerce. Many consumers now pay their expenses totally online. Online shopping at websites like Amazon has actually ended up being routine for many consumers. It did not take many years for online auctions at sites such as eBay to become enormously popular.

Electronic commerce, commonly known as (electronic marketing) e-commerce or eCommerce, includes the trading of products or services over electronic systems such as the Net and other computer networks. The amount of trade performed digitally has actually grown extraordinarily with extensive Net use. Using commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and making use of innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic information interchange (EDI), stock management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce normally uses the Internet at least at some point in the transaction’s lifecycle, although it can include a larger variety of innovations such as email too.

A huge percentage of electronic commerce is carried out completely online for virtual products such as access to premium material on an internet site, however many electronic commerce includes the transport of physical products in some way. Online merchants are occasionally called e-tailers and online retail is often called e-tail. Almost all big sellers have electronic commerce presence on the Net.

Electronic commerce that is carried out in between businesses is described as business-to-business or B2B. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e.g. commodity exchange) or restricted to specific, pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce that is performed between companies and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. This is the sort of electronic commerce performed by business such as Amazon.com.

Electronic commerce is typically thought about to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to help with the financing and payment facets of business deals.

The significance of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Initially, electronic commerce meant the assistance of commercial deals online, using innovation such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These were both presented in the late 1970s, enabling companies to send out industrial documents like order or invoices digitally. The development and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller equipments (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were likewise kinds of electronic commerce. Another kind of e-commerce was the airline reservation system symbolized by Sabre in the UNITED STATE and Travicom in the UK.

Online shopping, a crucial element of electronic commerce was created by Michael Aldrich in the UK in 1979. The world’s very first taped B2B was Thomson Holidays in 1981. The first documented B2C was Gateshead SIS/Tesco in 1984 The world’s very first tape-recorded online consumer was Mrs Jane Snowball of Gateshead, England During the 1980s, online shopping was likewise used thoroughly in the UK by auto manufacturers such as Ford, Peugeot-Talbot, General Motors and Nissan. All these companies and others used the Aldrich systems. The systems utilized the changed public telephone network in dial-up and rented line modes. There was no broadband capability.

From the 1990s onwards, electronic commerce would in addition consist of enterprise resource preparing systems (ERP), information mining and data warehousing.

A very early example of many-to-many electronic commerce in physical goods was the Boston Computer system Exchange, a marketplace for utilized computer systems launched in 1982. An early online details marketplace, consisting of online consulting, was the American Details Exchange, another pre Internet online system introduced in 1991.

In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web and changed a scholastic telecommunication network into an around the world everyman everyday communication system called internet/www. Company on the Internet was strictly prohibited up until 1991. Although the Internet ended up being popular worldwide around 1994 when the first web online shopping began, it took about 5 years to present security protocols and DSL enabling regular connection to the Internet. By the end of 2000, lots of European and American company companies offered their services with the World Wide Web. Ever since people started to connect a word “ecommerce” with the ability of purchasing numerous goods with the Web utilizing protected protocols and electronic payment services.

In the United States, some electronic commerce activities are managed by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities consist of the use of industrial e-mails, online marketing and customer personal privacy. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 develops nationwide standards for direct marketing over e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all kinds of advertising, consisting of online advertising, and states that advertising should be sincere and non-deceptive. Utilizing its authority under Area 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or misleading practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to implement the pledges in corporate privacy statements, consisting of pledges about the security of customers’ personal info. As outcome, any business privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC.
The Ryan Haight Online Drug store Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which entered law in 2008, modifies the Controlled Substances Act to deal with online drug stores.

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital” material for instant online consumption, to buying traditional goods and services, to “meta” services to assist in other kinds of electronic commerce.

On the consumer level, electronic commerce is mostly carried out on the Web. An individual can go online to acquire anything from books or groceries, to costly products like property. Another example would be electronic banking, i.e. online expense payments, buying stocks, moving funds from one account to another, and initiating wire payment to another nation. All of these activities can be done with a few strokes of the keyboard.

On the institutional level, big corporations and monetary institutions utilize the web to exchange monetary data to assist in domestic and worldwide company. Data integrity and security are extremely hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce today.

~~ These are notes from my UoM Computer Economics Class ~~

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SharePoint 2013 High Availability And Business Continuity

High availability and disaster recovery are the highest concern when you create a strategy and system specifications for a SharePoint 2013 farm. Other elements of the strategy, such as high efficiency and capacity, are negated if farm servers are not extremely readily available or a farm can not be recuperated.To create and implement an efficient technique that preserves efficient and uninterrupted operations, you need to comprehend the basic ideas of high availability and disaster recovery. These concepts are also important to assess and pick the very best technical options for your SharePoint environment. Business continuity management is a management procedure or program that defines, assesses, and helps manage the dangers to the continued running of an organization. The following table summarizes the inputs and outputs of business continuity management.Business continuity management focuses on developing and maintaining a business continuity plan, which is a roadmap for continuing operations when regular business operations are disrupted by negative conditions. These conditions can be natural, manufactured, or a mix of both. A continuity strategy is stemmed from a business effect analysis, a threat and risk analysis, a definition of the impact situations, and a set of reported recuperation requirements. The result is an option design or identified choices, an execution plan, a testing and organization acceptance strategy, and a maintenance strategy or book.

Clearly Information Technology  is a substantial aspect of business continuity thinking numerous organizations. Nonetheless, business continuity is more encompassing – it includes all the operations that are should make sure that an organization can remain to do business during and immediately after a significant disruptive occasion. A business continuity strategy includes policies, procedures and treatments, possible choices and decision-making responsibility, human resources and facilities, and infotech. Although high availability and disaster recovery are commonly related to business continuity management; they are in truth, parts of business continuity management.For a provided software application or service, high availability is ultimately determined in regards to completion individual’s experience and expectations. The concrete and regarded business impact of downtime may be expressed in terms of info loss, property damages, reduced efficiency, opportunity expenses, contractual damages, or the loss of goodwill.The primary goal of a high availability solution is to minimize or alleviate the impact of downtime. A sound method for this optimally stabilizes business processes and Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with technical capabilities and infrastructure costs.A platform is thought about extremely available per the arrangement and expectations of clients and stakeholders.System blackouts are either prepared for or thought, or they are the result of an unintended failure. Downtime need not be considered detrimentally if it is suitably handled. A time window is preannounced and coordinated for prepared maintenance tasks such as software patching, hardware upgrades, password updates, offline re-indexing, data loading, or the rehearsal of disaster recovery treatments. Purposeful, well-managed functional procedures must lessen downtime and avoid any data loss. Planned repair and maintenance activities can be seen as investments needed to avoid or reduce various other possibly more extreme unplanned failure situations. System-level, infrastructure, or process failures could occur that are unintended or unmanageable, or that are foreseeable, but considered either too unlikely to happen, or are thought about to have an appropriate effect. A durable high availability solution spots these types of failures, automatically recuperates from the failure, and then reestablishes fault tolerance.

When developing SLAs for high availability, you must determine different vital performance indications for planned repair and maintenance activities and unintended downtime. This method enables you to contrast your investment in structured repair and maintenance tasks against the perk of avoiding unintended downtime. High availability needs to not be thought about as an all-or-nothing proposition. As an alternative to a complete blackout, it is typically appropriate to the end individual for a system to be partially readily available, or to have restricted functionality or degraded performance. During a repair and maintenance window, or during a phased disaster recovery, data retrieval is still possible, but new workflows and background processing may be briefly stopped or queued. Due to a heavy work, a processing backlog, or a partial platform failure, restricted hardware resources might be over-committed or under-sized. User experience could suffer, but work may still get finished a less productive way. These types of issues might appear to the end individual as information latency or bad application responsiveness. Planned or unplanned failures may take place with dignity within vertical layers of the solution stack (infrastructure, platform, and application), or horizontally in between various useful components. Users could experience partial success or deterioration, hing on the attributes or elements that are affected. The acceptability of these suboptimal scenarios need to be considered as part of a spectrum of degraded accessibility getting at a total blackout, and as intermediate actions in a phased disaster recovery.

When downtime does occur, either prepared, or unintended, the main business goal is to bring the system back online and lessen information loss. Every min of downtime has direct and indirect costs. With unintended downtime, you need to stabilize the time and effort should identify why the blackout happened, what the present system state is, and exactly what actions are had to recuperate from the interruption.At a predetermined point in any blackout, you need to make or look for the business choice to stop examining the failure or doing maintenance jobs, recover from the outage by bringing the system back online, and if required, reestablish fault tolerance.

Data redundancy is a key component of a high availability data source solution. Transactional task on your primary SQL Server instance is synchronously or asynchronously put on several secondary circumstances. When an outage occurs, transactions that were in flight could be curtailed, or they could be lost on the secondary circumstances due to delays in information propagation.
You can both gauge the impact, and set rehabilitation goals in terms how long it requires to get back in company, and the amount of time latency there is in the last transaction recovered. The preliminary goal is to get the system back online in at least a read-only ability to help with examination of the failure. However, the primary objective is to recover full service to the point that brand-new transactions can occur. The actual data loss can vary baseding on the work on the system at the time of the failure, the kind of failure, and the sort of high availability option utilized. The company expenses of downtime may be either financial or through consumer goodwill. These costs may accumulate with time, or they might be incurred at a particular point in the failure window. In addition to projecting the expense of sustaining a failure with a provided recuperation time and data rehabilitation point, you can also compute the business process and infrastructure financial investments. Interruption recovery costs are stayed clear of entirely if an interruption does not take place in the first location. Investments consist of the expense of fault-tolerant and redundant hardware or infrastructure, dispersing workloads throughout isolated points of failure, and prepared downtime for preventive maintenance. If a system failure occurs, you can considerably alleviate the impact of downtime on the customer experience through automatic and transparent recuperation. Secondary or standby infrastructure can sit idle, waiting for an outage. It likewise can be leveraged for read-only workloads, or to improve total system efficiency by distributing works throughout all readily available hardware.

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