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Agricultural Planning And Development

It has been previously stated that in implementing rural development project in developing countries, a good starting point is to develop the agriculture in the area. In this section, we shall survey the pre-requisites for such a development and then study the factors of importance to be taken into consideration when agricultural development is initiated in an area, a region or in a country.

In developing countries, a large part of the total population still lives on the land and depends on it for their livelihood. In many developing countries, present estimates indicates that two-thirds of the national income and four-fifths of the exports come from agriculture and, traditionally, on little changed systems of crop and animal production. Under such conditions people generally are poor and average incomes barley exceed USD 100 per head per year. In the some of the developing countries, the average increase of the gross national product, over a specific period of time, was just over five percent per year, but between two-to-three percent of this national growth was used by the added population, thus making the rate of growth too slow and too small to have any political, social, economical impact on the population.

Generally speaking, in developing countries, agriculture is the main source of income, its supports the bulk of population, and is the largest potential market and has the greatest growth prospects. It can provide part of the capital for industrial development and can earn badly needed foreign exchange in order to develop other sector of the economy as well as health and social services. Agriculture also has to provide the raw material for other industries and use the manufactured goods of these industries. For example, if rural development is set so as to have industries. For example, if rural development is set so as to have industries and other non-agricultural development located in rural areas, then agriculture will cater for the needs for the rural community and thus it can be most effective. Such small scale rural and non-rural industries plus non-agricultural development will bring in such infrastructures as roads, bridges, electricity, water supply networks, irrigation systems, storage facilities, and established industries which produce or service essential agricultural inputs such as farm machinery and equipment, tools agrichemicals (insecticides, wee killers fungicides, etc), fertilizers, seeds, service and repair shops, etc. Moreover, rural inhabitants, peasants, small farmers small-holders and their  families can purchase agricultural products and manufactured outputs such as plastic goods, paper, textiles, shoes, clothing, food, drinks, tobacco, etc. In this way the market for local products is expanded and employment opportunities in rural areas are enhanced.

During the last four decades, due to rapidly growing populations and many other social and political factors, many developing countries have not been able to accumulate capital for agricultural and rural development rapidly enough.

To start with, traditional farmers of developing countries can accumulate and invest a modest capital if they are not restricted by high rents or interest rates, and are organized into sound and efficient cooperatives. However, in general, the amount of capital saved is small. So the capital for exports is obtained through taxation and marketing boards. Under such conditions a considerable amount of capital for development is obtained by using freely available local materials, self-help projects and party or totally available labor, if national, and local motivations are strong and local labor forces are seasonally under employed. China and Israel are two examples where major capital works have been constructed from freely given labor, and  rural people have volunteered to build roads, drains, bridges farm buildings, public baths, houses, village halls, community schools, etc.

In recent years, due to self sufficiency of developed countries which are the major buyers of raw agricultural materials, and the introduction of synthetic substitutes, the developing nations have been competing severally among themselves. Attempts to regulate this competition through community agreements have not been satisfactory. The result has been lower exchange earning in the face of cut-price competition by other developing nations offering the same commodities. This was the case with cotton export

It is possible for developing countries to improve agricultural production technology, decrease the cost per unit of production, increase export prices without diminishing profits, and making better use of foreign exchange, which at present, may frequently be spent on food and  other agricultural commodities, most of which could easily be produced locally. But many of the poorer developing countries have not been able to alleviate their trading situation by greater exports of agricultural products and thus have turned top the developed countries for investment and capital. In reality, although some of the developing countries may be politically independent, they have to look a board for a considerable part of their capital needs. In recent years there have been substantial foreign developing countries. Where the political situation has been unfavorable, both native private investment and foreign investment has declined. International provision of capital and aid to governments and their subsides have also dimensioned.

Assuming the major step in implementing rural development is to secure increased productivity of the agricultural sector of the national economy, we now proceed to examine how to plan agricultural development at the national level.

The process of decision making by governments for the agricultural development policies and implementation of such policies over a certain period of time is generally termed national planning for agricultural development. In preparing a plan of policies and action for agricultural development, whether in developed or developing countries, we must consider the following points.

  1. What are the present needs of agriculture in different regions of the country?
  2. What steps must be taken to meet these needs now and in the foreseeable future?
  3. What are the nature and amount if natural, physical, financial and manpower resources available to present, or they can be mobilized in the near future meet the requirements of agricultural development? Agricultural needs must be worked out and available for planning
  4. Identification definition of priorities and decision making  n such priorities in the agricultural development sector in order to use available resources efficiently
  5. The national plan for agricultural development must be flexible and continuous. This is to allow for changing priorities of agriculture, and changes in national policies and different  related sectors of the economy
  6. Technical knowledge and competence of those responsible for agricultural plans as well as general fields and industries is essential for sound planning, if the programs are to be effective and operative.

In planning for agricultural development at the national level for a developing country, the following points deserve especial attention

  1.  In a national planning program for agriculture, development or crop and animal production, marketing, local availability inputs, introduction of new technology, incentives to farm operators, and transportation should be given top priority. Unless these are present and working properly, other programs of agriculture will not show the expected and desired results
  2. parallel to development of the top priorities mentioned programs which encourage and accelerate agricultural development such as credit, education  of farm and rural people and improvement of agricultural land and other related fields should be planned and undertaken
  3. Agricultural planning at the national level can never be complete. In the same way as other partial governmental programs can be planned, because actual production of crops and other farm products cannot be planned in the same manner as for rural health or road building programs. In the final analysis, for greater productivity, many decision must be left to farmers, in the  light of the conditions prevailing the country or region at the time
  4. National agricultural plans must consist of separate regional agricultural plans. Actions taken to increase agricultural productivity vary enormously from one region to another in the same country. Regions with similar potential agricultural advancement will not have the same productivity under given conditions. Normally, the more advanced region will have a different priority, plan of development greater and faster increase in production, compared with less advanced regions.
  5. For the poorer rural people with low-fertility agricultural development must be made in order to prepare them for more advanced development plans. Here, implementation of farming systems research and extension training and service command special attention.
  6. Production of crops and animal products and also markets must be developed simultaneously. Farm products produced in a region and profitably sold, determine the agricultural potential of that region. Therefore, in planning for the national or regional development of agriculture, estimates of probable internal or foreign demand for selected farm products over the next few years should be made. Foods such as milk, mea, eggs, fruit and vegetables are consumed at a greatest rare than wheat, corn (Maize) and bean. Also the demand for these foods increases rapidly with industrial and urban development. Demand projections should be made for those farm products which give the greatest and fastest increase and return, if the necessary technology and facilities are available.
  7. Increased profitability of farming

At national or regional level, increasing the production particular farm crop or animal product over cast for the securing the maximum margin of returns over cast for the business of farming as a whole. Farmers use different types of crops, farm equipment, fertilizers, manures, insecticides etc, depending on which combination of inputs yields them the highest net return. Thus, in planning agriculture at national or regional levels, care should be taken not to use the total acreage under crops or the total number of livestock as the main criteria for judging success. It is the net return of an immense number of farm business and enterprises of different sizes and types which produce different products that contribute to the national agricultural economy. It is arriving at the correct combination of these various types by planning that makes each of these small farms profitable, and it is this experience of a good margin of profit that means that the planning at all levels has been successful.

  1. In planning for regional development of agriculture, it should be noted that certain types of investment take several years to become fully effective. Agricultural land expansion, water resource development, agricultural research, changing the attitudes of farmers to trust, respect and accept innovations, extension agents and service, all take time. Therefore, plans must  have continuity and be devised well in advance, for the  profitable and successful implementation of each sector on time
  2. Attention should also be given top the quality of production in many developing countries, large, schemes of rural education, credit  and health services are initiated without due attention to upgrading the skill and experience of those operating the schemes of working for them over the years. Therefore, allocations of funds to different sectors of agricultural development should be made wisely after careful review of the plans for each activity and the availability of relatively skilled manpower.
  3. Local coordination of the main activities essential to higher farm production, the availability of extension service, farm  supplies and equipment, as well as the local testing of some of these inputs  to convince farmers and gain their confidence, is quite important. Therefore, in preparing a national plan for agricultural development, coordination of these activities is not only necessary at national and regional levels, but also at the district, country and local levels, where farmers and rural people are involved.
  4. Experience wise judgment, reliable data and surveys in preparation for agricultural development should be used. Expenditure on in0service training for extension agents, their refresher courses, or establishment of a crop and animal research station will, indirectly, increase agricultural productivity over a period of several years. In planning to collect figures, census data, and statistics, it should be remembered that dependable and reliable answers to certain sections of the national agricultural plan can be given by correct data, but coordination of all parts of such a national plan requires quantitative judgment by experienced planners who possess a through understanding of agriculture and rural development activities in the area in a region or the country.
  5. Opinions expressed by farmers should be considered. Plans for agricultural development should be drawn up, based on adequate knowledge and information as to the needs of farmers, their problems and their preferences.
  6. Preparation of a joint plan for agriculture and industrial development. Generally, industrialization increases the number of wage earners and indirectly increases the demand for farm products, or, conversely, consumer goods produced by industry and made available in rural markets encourage farmers to produce more and sell more, in order to buy more consumer goods. Domestic industry aimed at producing farm equipment and supplies, lowers the cost of farm products produced. Therefore, any plans for agricultural development should also involve industrialization and should be related to it. In some countries, national agricultural plans complement or supplement rural development plans and rural small industries.
  7. In national plans, all that has been accomplished up to date should be included. Before, planning a new program, allocating finances, budgets, and physical and human resources careful assessment of what  has already been accomplished must be made.
  8. National plans for agricultural productivity should be continuous and reviewed as deemed necessary. The program of agricultural development may change from time to time in different developing countries and in different regions of the same country, to ensure a high level of productivity. Other governmental policies related to and affecting agriculture should also be reviewed continuously. Therefore, no policy should be regarded as permanent. For example, land reform policy introduced into a country to break up large estates and changes in agricultural technology and increasing rural employment opportunities. As a result, national agricultural plans should be made sufficiently flexible and continuous to accommodate such an important reform and he profound political and social changes that can be involved.

 Mosser (177,178) considers a series of eleven steps or principles that are most necessary for agricultural development in a region or country where already a moderately thriving agriculture is underway. Under such conditions, the considers a production. Some of the principles he proposes have already been mentioned, but they are indicated here for the sake f completeness.

  1. Modern agriculture cannot be commodity specific. As an agricultural economy changes for the better, the range of crops with time. People consume more of some foods as they earn more. Such as vegetables, fruit, milk, meat and eggs, and less of others, such as potatoes, wheat and rice. Thus the cropping pattern of a region changes s that the farm product can remain profitable. The establishment of agricultural support services such as the provision of fertilizers, insecticides, machinery service and repairs, etc, will aid patterns of land development that can be used flexibly to produce crops and animal products most profitable at different periods in the future.
  2. Careful planning from the present set up. To bring about higher agricultural productivity, a number of different facilities and services must be established in a large number of places in a yearly basis with a reasonable period of time. To plan for future development of agriculture, a careful inventory of present farming practices and agri-support activities must be available.
  3. It is important to recognize and give active support for food production in farming areas. Services to support agricultural production must be easily accessible to farmers. Those most immediately needed in farm production include sources of farm suppliers and equipment, markets for farm productions, local verification trials, sources of credit and extension services and good feeder roads to the highways connecting larger centers of consumption.
  4. Farming districts are the basic units for expanding and developing a progressive rural structure for greater agricultural productivity. District units made up of several farming localities are needed for efficient services, etc. The farming district is the smallest unit of the total rural complex of public and private agri-support services on which modern and growing agricultural production depends.
  5. Local verification trials. A favorable crop or livestock response in one location does not mean equal profitability of the same practice in each farm locality. Thus, before a new set f practices is recommended to farmers, local verification trials are needed to establish the merit of each practice. Later modifications to the trials will be needed to make them even more profitable in the local conditions.
  6. Development of rural structure for different growth potential regions. A minimum skeleton network of road is needed to give support to provision of agri-support services, social and community services, and wherever there is a possibility of increasing agricultural production, for example, areas designated as having areas will be the only areas where commodity oriented projects will be successful. Therefore, they deserve the highest priority for the creation of a progressive rural structure with sufficient number of fully equipped farming districts and localities to serve all farms.
  7. Agricultural growth and rural welfare are interdependent. Generally speaking, increasing rural welfare companies agricultural growth. The agricultural growth and the non-economic aspects of rural welfare are mutually interdependent and each has a role to play serving the broader goals of national integration, economic justice and social well-being.
  8. Commodity oriented projects increase production of specific farm products and serve in securing coordinated co-operation among various agri-support facilities and services. It is the support activities that can accomplish the success of the commodity oriented projects in areas with immediate agricultural growth potential, where economic production increases can be secured in a relatively short period of time.
  9. Intensity of rural programs should fit regional potential for agricultural growth. Different regions of developing countries have the following agricultural potentials for growth.
    1. farms and lands  where there is immediate growth potential  for agriculture
    2. Lands  of low  agricultural growth potential, but which are frequently used for  crop production
    3. Non-agricultural rural  lands such as deserts, mountains and other lands out suitable for cultivation

Each type of growth potential, according to Mosher (177,178) requires a rural welfare program and especial agricultural growth programs to suit the potential fertility and production capability of each area

  1. Initiatives in planning should be encouraged with respect to progressive rural structure. Local initiative provides first- hand knowledge of local conditions, leads to greater participation by rural people, while national planning for agriculture growth may provide the complementary elements of a progressive rural structure. All contribute to increased and enhanced agricultural development.
  2. Establishment f a set of procedural steps to give effect to these general principles. In creating a progressive rural structure, it must be decided what is to be done, in what order, in which place, over what period of time and how much it is going to cost. A procedural step in a progressive rural structure varies for each place and depends on sound information for the area already having been obtained. Generally speaking, in developing countries, agriculture is the main source of income, its supports the bulk of population, and is the largest potential market and has the greatest growth prospects.

During the last four decades, due to rapidly growing populations and many other social and political factors, many developing countries have not been able to accumulate capital for agricultural and rural development rapidly enough.

China and Israel are two examples where major capital works have been constructed from freely given labor, and  rural people have volunteered to build roads, drains, bridges farm buildings, public baths, houses, village halls, community schools, etc.

The national plan for agricultural development must be flexible and continuous. This is to allow for changing priorities of agriculture, and changes in national policies and different related sectors of the economy.

Agricultural land expansion, water resource development, agricultural research, changing the attitudes of farmers to trust, respect and accept innovations, extension agents and service, all take time. Therefore, plans must have continuity and be devised well in advance, for the profitable and successful implementation of each sector on time.

Experience wise judgment, reliable data and surveys in preparation for agricultural development should be used. Expenditure on in0service training for extension agents, their refresher courses, or establishment of a crop and animal research station will, indirectly, increase agricultural productivity over a period of several years.

Generally, industrialization increases the number of wage earners and indirectly increases the demand for farm products, or, conversely, consumer goods produced by industry and made available in rural markets encourage farmers to produce more and sell more, in order to buy more consumer goods.

To bring about higher agricultural productivity, a number of different facilities and services must be established in a large number of places in a yearly basis with a reasonable period of time. To plan for future development of agriculture, a careful inventory of present farming practices and agri-support activities must be available.

Local initiative provides first- hand knowledge of local conditions, leads to greater participation by rural people, while national planning for agriculture growth may provide the complementary elements of a progressive rural structure. All contribute to increased and enhanced agricultural development.

~~ These are the notes from my Rural Development class @ UoM ~~

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Rural Development Plans

Rural development project as part of the national plan aimed at reducing poverty and raising the standard of living of small-holders and low-income rural groups usually have a heavy emphasis on increased agricultural production and other sectors, such as health or education, may be neglected. It is, however, possible to design programmes which meet the requirements of the main groups and also provide benefits of development to other sectors of the economy. When designing such a program, care should be taken that applied or implied elements of the project do not meet with opposition by community leaders. To avoid this, the project should be of general interest to the community leaders; it should benefit the poor and needy, take into account existing social systems, traditions, customs, religious beliefs and the culture of the rural people. It should also reflect the particular needs and conditions of the area or region. It is important to remember that most of the experience with rural development stems from various ad hoc or piecemeal approaches and not from implementation of an overall rural development plan.

Rural development programmes, projects and plans may be categorized as follows:

  1. Those providing a package of minimum requirements for a large rural population group and depend for their success on the resources available.
  2. Programmes which include a much wider range of social services and production elements. These, which require large-scale human and financial resources, are termed comprehensive programmes. They relate mainly to specific area or regional schemes such as settlement programmers rather than to nationwide programmers.
  3. Supporting programmers. These are mainly aimed at providing work and benefits to the rural jobless and poor and should be integrated with a broader programmer for good results. Examples of supporting programmers are the establishment of national credit programmers for small holders, and projects for rural feeder roads and other rural works programmers to help the jobless and landless in rural areas. Most projects and programmers in different sectors of the national economy and services are in this group and are referred to as sector projects or sector programmers. Examples of sector programmers are special projects in transport, drainage, education, health, etc.

A brief description of each system of planning follows:

This approach is based on providing a wide range of broad-based general improvements in standards of living through an increase in agricultural production. In this type of programmer, emphasis is placed on a sequence of development needs, and the requirements of target groups are complemented by a minimum amount of finance, staffing and organization. The main advantage of this approach is its emphasis on broad based productivity with the least amount of institutional development and high participation by rural people. As an example of minimum package programmer (MMP) one may cite, a programmer in Ethiopia, established in 1971 and aimed at small farmers. Here, the MPP provides agricultural production credit, extension service, cooperative development and construction of feeder roads in 10,000 family blocks or units. Another example is the seed improvement project by the World Bank in the republic of Korea where over 500,000farmers are served by a programmer offering them improved varieties of wheat, barley, paddy rice, potato and soybeans. In this program research is being undertaken to improve crop seeds, which are then distributed through cooperatives plus credit and extension guidance to individual farmers. Under adverse conditions, rural poor do not benefit from Minimum package programmers. They may benefit indirectly when they are hired as landless lab our by small farmers who have recently become more prosperous.

In this approach, consideration is given to rural   development programmes directed at a much wider spectrum of the rural population. Comprehensive programmers carried out by some of the developing countries are characterized by a careful definition of the needs and resources of the target rural population, detailed planning of preparation and implementation, phasing of multi sect oral components and adjustment, or, restructuring the existing related institutions. Examples of the comprehensive approach are the rural development plans of the republic of china, Korea and Japan. In the republic of china (Taiwan) over a period of 20 years (1950 to 1970), agricultural output grew by 5 per cent annually especially where 890,000 farms of less then 1 hectare in size (2.47 acres and includes one-third of the cultivated area of the country) showed the greatest growth. The farm income of this group exceeded US$300per capita in 1970.  The success of the Taiwanese projects is attributed to the organization of farmers in to farmers’ association, which are multipurpose in character. This three level system of association consists of agricultural units made up several families, families, followed by township farmers association, then district or country associations and finally the top managerial organization. The multi purpose farmers’ associations have become a major source of institutional credit and a great factor in increased agriculture productivity. This increased agricultural production resulted from higher crop yields and was mainly due to the use of better inputs,(seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, machinery, etc.), and the adoption of new technology by a great many small farmers..

Another example of a comprehensive rural development plan is the Mexican integrated rural development project (PIDER). It has detailed planning and considerable institutional adjustment had to be made in it. Its primary objective is to provide resources and services in selected rural areas, to increase employment, introduce direct productive activities, improve the basic social infrastructures and production services. Selection of the region for development, introduce direct productive activities, improve the basic social infrastructures and production services. Selection of the region for development was based on a high percentage of unemployment and underemployment of the rural people, economically depressed rural areas but with potential for agricultural expansion, for mining or for industrial production with at least one growth sector for development.   

In many developing countries, area agricultural and rural development programs aimed at specific complex target groups are locally prepared to meet the special needs of a specific rural area. Because of the technical nature and consideration of agricultural improvements, which require a large number of inputs such as fertilizers, equipments, credit, machinery, storage, processing, marketing, energy and price incentives to be bought together by public and private organizations, such agricultural projects are handled as area development programs examples of specific crop development projects in particular areas are ‘’single product projects” such as ground nut and tobacco promotion in Tanzania , tea in Kenya, cotton in Mali and Tanzania, and coffee in Papua  new Guinea. These schemes operate through a well- funded and well- staffed authority, often with little community or local participation.

The advantages of all inclusive area development projects are in the concerted and directed efforts of its implementers to meet the needs of rural poor, settlers, low income farmers, through diversified crops or, only one or two major crops and integrated farming systems. This type of project also provides services such as credit, technical information, marketing arrangements for sale of the products. Ii is also association with close control of farm operations and supervision of credit. Later this can be linked with other rural projects such as the provision of schools, medical facilities, water supply, etc. when the approach does not include much consideration for wider programmes of development rather than higher productivity of a single crop some settlement projects are of special interest.

The advantage of settlement projects are that they provide opportunities to break through the local customs and cultural barriers of closely integrated inward-looking, traditional rural communities. They also diminish the strength of power in the hands of few land lords who have a source of cheap labor. Examples of such settlement schemes are the Gezeira settlement scheme in Sudan, which begin in 1920 and by 1970 covered nearly 834,000 hectares (2,059,980 acres) of irrigated land. Another example is the Comilla project in Bangladesh, which is a series of pilot projects, designed by the Pakistan academy of rural development. From 1958 to 1971, these projects covered long established settlements.

The Comilla projects covered long established settlements. The Comilla project demonstrated the potential for substantially raising the incomes of small farmers in a period of ten years in a limited but relatively large area. In this program a large number of villagers, local rural people were trained in cooperative organization, pump irrigation and other related fields of interest to villagers. Comilla rural development plan stimulated rural public work programs for road construction, canal excavation and construction of flood embankments for about 1,916,666 hectares (4,734,165 acres) .placement of 32,900 low lift –water pumps tube wells to irrigate an estimated 541.000 hectares (1.336.270 acres) and fourfold use of fertilizer in the area with a resultant two-fold increase in the incomes of farmers included in the program.

The Comilla project’s success was use to strong innovative and imaginative local leadership, careful phasing  of program development, experiences gained and used under pilot and preset small trials and flexibility  allowed for in the plan as  new experiences was gained, and as operations advanced (209a).

The pueblo project in Mexico, which began in 1967, deals with a homogenous area of 50,000 small farmers. It is more voluntary in inspiration than Gezira and is primarily agriculturally oriented by providing new technical packages based in local adaptive research on corn (maize) production for small farmers. The initial work involved identifying problems and providing technical information on soil, seeds, pests and disease, crop culture practices and training for technicians to work on small farm development. The project also included provision of credit and marketing facilities. From 1968 to 1972 there was an annual increase in the yield of corn (maize) of the order of 9.5 percent and a rise in farm family income of US110. The Puelblo project has not been very successful in integrating its d activities in to the fabric f regular government services, the bank must still be prodded to lend to small farmers, its research and extension functions are largely outside government channels, and organizations which articulate local farmer’s opinions and concerns have not emerged, and are therefore not tied in to the higher levels of the service system.

A similar program, but operating in a different context is the Lilongwe Land development program (LLDP) in Malawi. This project began in 1967 and covers an area of about 480.000 hectares (1,185.600 acres ) and a population of 550.000 people mostly small farmers. It is a large scale land development program in terms of rural transformation. It utilizes close cooperation and coordination among different government departments including staff specially seconded to the program and involves different functions, activities and services, such as sub-regional centers for markets and services provision of regional infrastructures such as roads health clinics, water suppliers bridges and service buildings. Consolidation of landholdings community organizations and village committees for local participation in decision making and planning, and credit schemes and agricultural extension and training of extension workers were implemented.

Normally there are three major potential dangers with such rural area development plans.

  1. The scheme may concentrate a disproportionate share of resources on providing benefits to a relatively small group in relation to the overall size of the national target group
  2. The scheme’s planning is too complex and ambitious calling for a sustained exceptional leadership which is hard to get both inside the country and from abroad
  3. They may distort  priorities in the allocation of resources among sectors

These activities are usually organized by the government department responsible for central planning on a national basis. These programs may or not meet the specific needs of the rural poor and he low income groups in a particular region. They generally do not by themselves provide a basis for self-sustaining increases in productivity, employment or income; rather, they are complementary or component parts of programs with his objective in mind. For example, when a road is built in rural areas, it is then used by everyone. Similarly, a school or medical clinic, when opened in a village can be used by all local children and rural inhabitants. Sector programs often reflect inappropriate standards and result in elaborate and costly service poorly structured in terms of overall priority needs of rural communities.

These are a type of sector and special programs which have been used to provide jobs for small farmers, rural poor and landless laborers in the off-peak seasons. Rural works programs can provide direct and timely income to those most in need of an income and create productive infrastructure development at the same time. It is to be noted that even in the best designed and well managed rural public works projects, the wages of the rural poor and unskilled labor will not be much above half the total expenditure and it is the secondary effects in the form of greater demand for labor that benefit the rural poor and unskilled. It’s important that rural public works should be part of a larger employment and rural development plan, and should be used in coordination with other programs, projects and activities to ensure full realization of their benefits. Moreover, rural public works programs should be coordinated with specific local development projects and thus they can afford an excellent opportunity for local level planning and the least degree of centralization.

~~ These are the notes from my Rural Development class @ UoM ~~

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