Designing Global (WAN) SharePoint 2013 Environments Part 1

SharePoint Server 2013 is optimized to perform well over wide-area network (WAN) connections. For most clients, a central environment is the advised architecture for serving a globally user base. Clients who have websites that are not well linked may benefit from deploying several regional farms. This short article explains supported architectures, methods to optimize SharePoint Server 2013 for WAN connections, and suggestions for service applications. The most crucial aspect that drives architectures for WAN environments is the efficiency of SharePoint Server 2013 across the WAN connections. Before you consider architecture options for your WAN environment, initially evaluate the performance that users will experience for the most typical actions they will carry out. This can be done by using methodical benchmark screening across multiple WAN connections, or with simple user screening against a test environment. You can likewise develop an examination website in Office 365 and check the individual experience from multiple locations.

WAN efficiency for SharePoint Server 2013 is enhanced compared with SharePoint 2010 Products. If your company currently deploys more than one farm geographically using an earlier variation of the product, you might be able to be successful with either a single, central-farm environment or with less farms. Do not presume that your organization will require the exact same variety of farms as you deployed with an earlier variation. The first and best choice to serve a worldwide individual base is to deploy SharePoint Server 2013 to a central environment. Due to the efficiency renovations in SharePoint Server 2013 global clients who are well connected with WAN connections can anticipate to prosper with a centralized implementation of SharePoint Server 2013. For enterprise-scale customers, this might consist of more than one farm that is deployed to a single datacenter. A lot of customers can deploy a single farm to fulfill the needs of a company. Organization can likewise make use of Office 365 as a main environment to serve a worldwide user base.

If you deploy SharePoint Server 2013 on premise a number of approaches can help to optimize a centralized environment throughout WAN connections. The default pages in SharePoint Server 2013 are enhanced for efficiency. If you personalize pages or add numerous images or various other types of content, make sure that you enhance these pages so they perform well over WAN connections. A number of attributes in Windows Server can improve performance for users who link to a central environment with a local website or branch office. BranchCache, a feature of the Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2012 running systems, caches content from file and web servers on a WAN on computers at a neighborhood branch office. In a geographically distributed SharePoint Server 2013 environment, BranchCache can optimize WAN efficiency by caching large files that users download from SharePoint Server 2013. Windows 2000 introduced QoS attributes that Windows Server 2012 has enhanced. QoS enables you to fulfill the service requirements of a work or an application by measuring network bandwidth, identifying changing network conditions (such as congestion or accessibility of bandwidth), and focusing on – or throttling – network traffic. For instance, you can use QoS to focus on traffic for latency-sensitive applications and to manage the impact of latency-insensitive traffic (such as bulk information transfers). You can utilize QoS to prioritize requests for applications that are vital for individuals. In addition, you can deprioritize applications or procedures that detrimentally impact efficiency, such as large downloads or backup procedures.

WAN accelerators benefit intranet implementations. Some worldwide business place WAN accelerators across the greatest latency connections to improve efficiency at these websites to an acceptable array. These solutions typically enhance traffic at several levels. WAN acceleration options compress network-level packets and enhance the underlying protocol to lower the raw traffic. WAN accelerators optimize content by comparing material blocks against a history of recently sent blocks, which enables only differences to be sent instead of all the content. Application-aware gadgets enhance the application-level process which lowers the application chatter. Various options use various mixes of optimization techniques and algorithms. WAN accelerators work in pairs. One device is in the information center beside the servers that are running SharePoint Server 2013, and another gadget is in the branch office or on a customer device outside an office. Many WAN accelerator devices are available. Each gadget enhances WAN traffic in various ways. Due to the fact that SharePoint Server 2013 likewise optimizes and compresses information, it is necessary to test the efficiency of SharePoint Server 2013 both with and without WAN acceleration gadgets. Sometimes, the squeezing of numerous innovations may detrimentally have an effect on efficiency compared with the advantage attained. Lots of clients can make a central environment work by working with bandwidth carriers to enhance the network connections between users and a central website. Likewise, some telecommunications companies offer more effective routing patterns, especially in arising markets. As compared to the intricacy of managing SharePoint farms and material at several places, it might be more practical to optimize the WAN connections instead.

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Co-authoring In SharePoint 2013

Use the co-authoring function in SharePoint Server 2013 or SharePoint Online to allow numerous individuals to work on a document, at any time, without interfering with each other’s changes. Co-authoring removes obstacles to server-based document cooperation and assists companies to lower the overhead associated with standard document sharing with accessories. This functionality requires no extra server setup and is the default state for documents stored in SharePoint 2013 and SharePoint Online. Co-authoring functionality is managed using the same devices and technologies that are already used to handle SharePoint, helping to minimize the influence on administrators. Similar to Office 2010, Office 2013 offers co-authoring functionality for Word 2013, PowerPoint 2013 and OneNote 2013. Office 2013 introduces co-authoring functionality for Visio 2013. If you are utilizing SharePoint Online or have SharePoint 2013 set up to utilize Office Web Apps Server, individuals can likewise co-author documents in Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and OneNote Web Apps.

In traditional organization, documents are shared through e-mail attachments. Monitoring variations and edits from multiple authors is challenging and taxing for individuals. Email systems have to contend with storing numerous copies of the same document, not to mention increased network traffic as documents are sent consistently. The use of SharePoint to save documents for partnership has decreased these issues by providing constant access to up-to-date variations of documents, the ability to track earlier versions, and central management. Keeping a single document, instead of numerous accessories, also minimizes network and storage overhead. However this solution hasn’t already been perfect. When one author has a document open, various other authors cannot deal with it. If someone forgets to close a document or examine it in, various other users may be locked out forever, a scenario that commonly requires a call to the IT department. Co-authoring in SharePoint 2013 addresses these issues by making it possible for multiple users to work on a document, at any time, without interfering with each other’s modifications. This method streamlines numerous common document-collaboration circumstances.

Co-authoring is easy to use from a user’s viewpoint. When a user wants to deal with a document in Word 2013, PowerPoint 2013, OneNote 2013, Visio 2013 or one of the Office Web Apps, she or he merely opens it from SharePoint 2013 or SharePoint Online, as usual. If another individual already has the document open, both individuals can modify the document at the same time. One exception to this is that users can co-author in Excel Web App just if everybody makes use of the Excel Web App to access the workbook. If anyone makes use of Excel 2013 or Excel 2010 to access the workbook, co-authoring in Excel Web App will be disabled for that workbook while it levels in the client application. When a user conserves a Word 2013, PowerPoint 2013, or Word Web App document, various other present users are informed that there are new edits. Those individuals can freshen their takes immediately to see the changes or continue their work and refresh later on to see the current edits. PowerPoint Web App, and Excel Web App auto-save so that individuals can see any modifications immediately. The authors can see one another’s work, and everybody understands who is working on the document. SharePoint 2013 and SharePoint Online versioning and tracking devices protect the document so that authors can curtail undesirable changes. When Lync is offered, individuals can see the online status of fellow co-authors and start instantaneous messaging conversations without leaving the document.

In OneNote 2013 and the OneNote Web App, shared notebooks make it possible for users to share notes flawlessly. When a user modifies a page of the notebook, those edits are instantly integrated with other individuals of that notebook so that everyone has a full set of notes. Edits made by multiple users on the same page appear automatically, which makes it possible for near real-time collaboration. Versioning and various other shared functions in OneNote make it possible for individuals to roll back edits, show exactly what edits are brand-new, and determine who made a specific edit. The Excel 2013 client application does not support co-authoring workbooks in SharePoint 2013 or SharePoint Online. However, the Excel customer application makes use of the Shared Workbook attribute to support non-real-time co-authoring workbooks that are stored locally or on network paths. Co-authoring workbooks in SharePoint is supported using the Excel Web App, which is consisted of with Office Web Apps. Office Web Apps is offered to users with SkyDrive and to business consumers who have Office 365, or Office 2013 volume licensing, or Office Web Apps Server and SharePoint 2013.

There are a number of aspects that administrators will want to think about when preparing the best ways to use co-authoring in their environment. For several individuals to be able to modify the exact same document, users require edit authorizations for the document library where that document is stored. The most basic way to guarantee that this is to give all individuals access to the SharePoint site where documents are kept. In cases in which only a subset of individuals need to have permission to co-author documents in a specific library, SharePoint permissions can be used to manage gain access to. SharePoint Server versioning keeps track of changes to documents while they are being modified, and even stores earlier versions for reference. By default, this function is switched off in SharePoint 2013. SharePoint 2013 supports two kinds of versioning, significant and small. It is most effectively that minor versioning remain off for document libraries that are used for co-authoring in OneNote, due to the fact that it may disrupt the synchronization and versioning capacities that belong to the item. This constraint just puts on minor versioning. Major versioning might be utilized with OneNote. The number of document versions maintained impacts storage requirements on the server. This number can be tuned in the document library settings to restrict the variety of versions kept. OneNote notebooks that are often upgraded could result in numerous versions being saved on the server. To avoid making use of unnecessary disk space, we advise that an administrator set the maximum lot of variations preserved to a practical number on document libraries made use of to keep OneNote notebooks. The versioning duration identifies how often SharePoint products will produce a variation of a Word or PowerPoint document that is being co-authored. Setting this period to a reduced value will capture variations more frequently, for even more detailed variation monitoring, but might need more server storage. The versioning duration does not influence OneNote notebooks. When a user checks out a document for editing, the document is locked for editing by that user. This prevents co-authoring. Do not enable the Require Check Out feature in document libraries where co-authoring will be used. By default, Require Check Out is not allowed in SharePoint 2013. Individuals ought to not check out documents by hand when co-authoring is being made use of.

Unlike Word and PowerPoint, OneNote shops variation information within the file itself. Do not make it possible for minor versioning. By default, minor versioning is not made it possible for in SharePoint 2013. If major versioning is enabled, set a reasonable max number of versions to store. By default, major versioning is not enabled in SharePoint 2013.

Individuals of earlier versions of PowerPoint and Word can share and edit documents that are kept in SharePoint 2013 or SharePoint Online precisely as they might in earlier variations of SharePoint. But they cannot utilize co-authoring to deal with them at the same time. To work together best in PowerPoint and Word, we suggest that all individuals work in Office 2013. Users of PowerPoint 2007 and Word 2007 won’t experience any significant difference between their existing experience and their individual experience in SharePoint. For example, if Office 2007 individuals open a document that is kept in SharePoint and is currently being modified by an additional user, they will see a message that the document is being used. They will be unable to edit it. If no other user is editing the document, Office 2007 users will have the ability to open it as usual. When an Office 2007 individual opens a document, the document will be locked. While it is locked, Office 2013 individuals cannot utilize co-authoring to edit the document. This habits matches earlier versions of SharePoint. Document co-authoring is supported in between PowerPoint 2010 and PowerPoint 2013 users, and Word 2010 and Word 2013 users. However, PowerPoint 2013 and Word 2013 have some function renovations that provide individuals a better co-authoring experience than in earlier variations. OneNote 2013 and OneNote 2010 are backward appropriate with the OneNote 2007 file format and they support co-authoring with OneNote 2007 individuals. In blended environments, notebooks need to be saved in the OneNote 2007 file format for OneNote 2007, OneNote 2010, and OneNote 2013 individuals to deal with it together. But, by upgrading to the OneNote 2013 file format, users get a number of key functions, such as compatibility with the OneNote Web App. That allows individuals who don’t have any version of OneNote set up to edit and co-author notebooks. OneNote 2013 consists of the ability to update OneNote 2007 files to OneNote 2013 files at any time. This offers a simple upgrade path for companies that are moving from a blended environment to a unified environment on Office 2013.

SharePoint 2013 and Office 2013 applications reduce the efficiency and scalability impact that is associated with co-authoring in your environment. Office customers do not send or download co-authoring info from the server till more than one author is modifying. When a single individual is modifying a document, the efficiency impact resembles that of earlier variations of SharePoint. Office clients are configured to lower server impact by lowering the frequency of synchronization activities that are associated with co-authoring when the server is under heavy tons, or when a user is not actively editing the document. This helps decrease overall efficiency impact.

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Agricultural Planning And Development

It has been previously stated that in implementing rural development project in developing countries, a good starting point is to develop the agriculture in the area. In this section, we shall survey the pre-requisites for such a development and then study the factors of importance to be taken into consideration when agricultural development is initiated in an area, a region or in a country.

In developing countries, a large part of the total population still lives on the land and depends on it for their livelihood. In many developing countries, present estimates indicates that two-thirds of the national income and four-fifths of the exports come from agriculture and, traditionally, on little changed systems of crop and animal production. Under such conditions people generally are poor and average incomes barley exceed USD 100 per head per year. In the some of the developing countries, the average increase of the gross national product, over a specific period of time, was just over five percent per year, but between two-to-three percent of this national growth was used by the added population, thus making the rate of growth too slow and too small to have any political, social, economical impact on the population.

Generally speaking, in developing countries, agriculture is the main source of income, its supports the bulk of population, and is the largest potential market and has the greatest growth prospects. It can provide part of the capital for industrial development and can earn badly needed foreign exchange in order to develop other sector of the economy as well as health and social services. Agriculture also has to provide the raw material for other industries and use the manufactured goods of these industries. For example, if rural development is set so as to have industries. For example, if rural development is set so as to have industries and other non-agricultural development located in rural areas, then agriculture will cater for the needs for the rural community and thus it can be most effective. Such small scale rural and non-rural industries plus non-agricultural development will bring in such infrastructures as roads, bridges, electricity, water supply networks, irrigation systems, storage facilities, and established industries which produce or service essential agricultural inputs such as farm machinery and equipment, tools agrichemicals (insecticides, wee killers fungicides, etc), fertilizers, seeds, service and repair shops, etc. Moreover, rural inhabitants, peasants, small farmers small-holders and their  families can purchase agricultural products and manufactured outputs such as plastic goods, paper, textiles, shoes, clothing, food, drinks, tobacco, etc. In this way the market for local products is expanded and employment opportunities in rural areas are enhanced.

During the last four decades, due to rapidly growing populations and many other social and political factors, many developing countries have not been able to accumulate capital for agricultural and rural development rapidly enough.

To start with, traditional farmers of developing countries can accumulate and invest a modest capital if they are not restricted by high rents or interest rates, and are organized into sound and efficient cooperatives. However, in general, the amount of capital saved is small. So the capital for exports is obtained through taxation and marketing boards. Under such conditions a considerable amount of capital for development is obtained by using freely available local materials, self-help projects and party or totally available labor, if national, and local motivations are strong and local labor forces are seasonally under employed. China and Israel are two examples where major capital works have been constructed from freely given labor, and  rural people have volunteered to build roads, drains, bridges farm buildings, public baths, houses, village halls, community schools, etc.

In recent years, due to self sufficiency of developed countries which are the major buyers of raw agricultural materials, and the introduction of synthetic substitutes, the developing nations have been competing severally among themselves. Attempts to regulate this competition through community agreements have not been satisfactory. The result has been lower exchange earning in the face of cut-price competition by other developing nations offering the same commodities. This was the case with cotton export

It is possible for developing countries to improve agricultural production technology, decrease the cost per unit of production, increase export prices without diminishing profits, and making better use of foreign exchange, which at present, may frequently be spent on food and  other agricultural commodities, most of which could easily be produced locally. But many of the poorer developing countries have not been able to alleviate their trading situation by greater exports of agricultural products and thus have turned top the developed countries for investment and capital. In reality, although some of the developing countries may be politically independent, they have to look a board for a considerable part of their capital needs. In recent years there have been substantial foreign developing countries. Where the political situation has been unfavorable, both native private investment and foreign investment has declined. International provision of capital and aid to governments and their subsides have also dimensioned.

Assuming the major step in implementing rural development is to secure increased productivity of the agricultural sector of the national economy, we now proceed to examine how to plan agricultural development at the national level.

The process of decision making by governments for the agricultural development policies and implementation of such policies over a certain period of time is generally termed national planning for agricultural development. In preparing a plan of policies and action for agricultural development, whether in developed or developing countries, we must consider the following points.

  1. What are the present needs of agriculture in different regions of the country?
  2. What steps must be taken to meet these needs now and in the foreseeable future?
  3. What are the nature and amount if natural, physical, financial and manpower resources available to present, or they can be mobilized in the near future meet the requirements of agricultural development? Agricultural needs must be worked out and available for planning
  4. Identification definition of priorities and decision making  n such priorities in the agricultural development sector in order to use available resources efficiently
  5. The national plan for agricultural development must be flexible and continuous. This is to allow for changing priorities of agriculture, and changes in national policies and different  related sectors of the economy
  6. Technical knowledge and competence of those responsible for agricultural plans as well as general fields and industries is essential for sound planning, if the programs are to be effective and operative.

In planning for agricultural development at the national level for a developing country, the following points deserve especial attention

  1.  In a national planning program for agriculture, development or crop and animal production, marketing, local availability inputs, introduction of new technology, incentives to farm operators, and transportation should be given top priority. Unless these are present and working properly, other programs of agriculture will not show the expected and desired results
  2. parallel to development of the top priorities mentioned programs which encourage and accelerate agricultural development such as credit, education  of farm and rural people and improvement of agricultural land and other related fields should be planned and undertaken
  3. Agricultural planning at the national level can never be complete. In the same way as other partial governmental programs can be planned, because actual production of crops and other farm products cannot be planned in the same manner as for rural health or road building programs. In the final analysis, for greater productivity, many decision must be left to farmers, in the  light of the conditions prevailing the country or region at the time
  4. National agricultural plans must consist of separate regional agricultural plans. Actions taken to increase agricultural productivity vary enormously from one region to another in the same country. Regions with similar potential agricultural advancement will not have the same productivity under given conditions. Normally, the more advanced region will have a different priority, plan of development greater and faster increase in production, compared with less advanced regions.
  5. For the poorer rural people with low-fertility agricultural development must be made in order to prepare them for more advanced development plans. Here, implementation of farming systems research and extension training and service command special attention.
  6. Production of crops and animal products and also markets must be developed simultaneously. Farm products produced in a region and profitably sold, determine the agricultural potential of that region. Therefore, in planning for the national or regional development of agriculture, estimates of probable internal or foreign demand for selected farm products over the next few years should be made. Foods such as milk, mea, eggs, fruit and vegetables are consumed at a greatest rare than wheat, corn (Maize) and bean. Also the demand for these foods increases rapidly with industrial and urban development. Demand projections should be made for those farm products which give the greatest and fastest increase and return, if the necessary technology and facilities are available.
  7. Increased profitability of farming

At national or regional level, increasing the production particular farm crop or animal product over cast for the securing the maximum margin of returns over cast for the business of farming as a whole. Farmers use different types of crops, farm equipment, fertilizers, manures, insecticides etc, depending on which combination of inputs yields them the highest net return. Thus, in planning agriculture at national or regional levels, care should be taken not to use the total acreage under crops or the total number of livestock as the main criteria for judging success. It is the net return of an immense number of farm business and enterprises of different sizes and types which produce different products that contribute to the national agricultural economy. It is arriving at the correct combination of these various types by planning that makes each of these small farms profitable, and it is this experience of a good margin of profit that means that the planning at all levels has been successful.

  1. In planning for regional development of agriculture, it should be noted that certain types of investment take several years to become fully effective. Agricultural land expansion, water resource development, agricultural research, changing the attitudes of farmers to trust, respect and accept innovations, extension agents and service, all take time. Therefore, plans must  have continuity and be devised well in advance, for the  profitable and successful implementation of each sector on time
  2. Attention should also be given top the quality of production in many developing countries, large, schemes of rural education, credit  and health services are initiated without due attention to upgrading the skill and experience of those operating the schemes of working for them over the years. Therefore, allocations of funds to different sectors of agricultural development should be made wisely after careful review of the plans for each activity and the availability of relatively skilled manpower.
  3. Local coordination of the main activities essential to higher farm production, the availability of extension service, farm  supplies and equipment, as well as the local testing of some of these inputs  to convince farmers and gain their confidence, is quite important. Therefore, in preparing a national plan for agricultural development, coordination of these activities is not only necessary at national and regional levels, but also at the district, country and local levels, where farmers and rural people are involved.
  4. Experience wise judgment, reliable data and surveys in preparation for agricultural development should be used. Expenditure on in0service training for extension agents, their refresher courses, or establishment of a crop and animal research station will, indirectly, increase agricultural productivity over a period of several years. In planning to collect figures, census data, and statistics, it should be remembered that dependable and reliable answers to certain sections of the national agricultural plan can be given by correct data, but coordination of all parts of such a national plan requires quantitative judgment by experienced planners who possess a through understanding of agriculture and rural development activities in the area in a region or the country.
  5. Opinions expressed by farmers should be considered. Plans for agricultural development should be drawn up, based on adequate knowledge and information as to the needs of farmers, their problems and their preferences.
  6. Preparation of a joint plan for agriculture and industrial development. Generally, industrialization increases the number of wage earners and indirectly increases the demand for farm products, or, conversely, consumer goods produced by industry and made available in rural markets encourage farmers to produce more and sell more, in order to buy more consumer goods. Domestic industry aimed at producing farm equipment and supplies, lowers the cost of farm products produced. Therefore, any plans for agricultural development should also involve industrialization and should be related to it. In some countries, national agricultural plans complement or supplement rural development plans and rural small industries.
  7. In national plans, all that has been accomplished up to date should be included. Before, planning a new program, allocating finances, budgets, and physical and human resources careful assessment of what  has already been accomplished must be made.
  8. National plans for agricultural productivity should be continuous and reviewed as deemed necessary. The program of agricultural development may change from time to time in different developing countries and in different regions of the same country, to ensure a high level of productivity. Other governmental policies related to and affecting agriculture should also be reviewed continuously. Therefore, no policy should be regarded as permanent. For example, land reform policy introduced into a country to break up large estates and changes in agricultural technology and increasing rural employment opportunities. As a result, national agricultural plans should be made sufficiently flexible and continuous to accommodate such an important reform and he profound political and social changes that can be involved.

 Mosser (177,178) considers a series of eleven steps or principles that are most necessary for agricultural development in a region or country where already a moderately thriving agriculture is underway. Under such conditions, the considers a production. Some of the principles he proposes have already been mentioned, but they are indicated here for the sake f completeness.

  1. Modern agriculture cannot be commodity specific. As an agricultural economy changes for the better, the range of crops with time. People consume more of some foods as they earn more. Such as vegetables, fruit, milk, meat and eggs, and less of others, such as potatoes, wheat and rice. Thus the cropping pattern of a region changes s that the farm product can remain profitable. The establishment of agricultural support services such as the provision of fertilizers, insecticides, machinery service and repairs, etc, will aid patterns of land development that can be used flexibly to produce crops and animal products most profitable at different periods in the future.
  2. Careful planning from the present set up. To bring about higher agricultural productivity, a number of different facilities and services must be established in a large number of places in a yearly basis with a reasonable period of time. To plan for future development of agriculture, a careful inventory of present farming practices and agri-support activities must be available.
  3. It is important to recognize and give active support for food production in farming areas. Services to support agricultural production must be easily accessible to farmers. Those most immediately needed in farm production include sources of farm suppliers and equipment, markets for farm productions, local verification trials, sources of credit and extension services and good feeder roads to the highways connecting larger centers of consumption.
  4. Farming districts are the basic units for expanding and developing a progressive rural structure for greater agricultural productivity. District units made up of several farming localities are needed for efficient services, etc. The farming district is the smallest unit of the total rural complex of public and private agri-support services on which modern and growing agricultural production depends.
  5. Local verification trials. A favorable crop or livestock response in one location does not mean equal profitability of the same practice in each farm locality. Thus, before a new set f practices is recommended to farmers, local verification trials are needed to establish the merit of each practice. Later modifications to the trials will be needed to make them even more profitable in the local conditions.
  6. Development of rural structure for different growth potential regions. A minimum skeleton network of road is needed to give support to provision of agri-support services, social and community services, and wherever there is a possibility of increasing agricultural production, for example, areas designated as having areas will be the only areas where commodity oriented projects will be successful. Therefore, they deserve the highest priority for the creation of a progressive rural structure with sufficient number of fully equipped farming districts and localities to serve all farms.
  7. Agricultural growth and rural welfare are interdependent. Generally speaking, increasing rural welfare companies agricultural growth. The agricultural growth and the non-economic aspects of rural welfare are mutually interdependent and each has a role to play serving the broader goals of national integration, economic justice and social well-being.
  8. Commodity oriented projects increase production of specific farm products and serve in securing coordinated co-operation among various agri-support facilities and services. It is the support activities that can accomplish the success of the commodity oriented projects in areas with immediate agricultural growth potential, where economic production increases can be secured in a relatively short period of time.
  9. Intensity of rural programs should fit regional potential for agricultural growth. Different regions of developing countries have the following agricultural potentials for growth.
    1. farms and lands  where there is immediate growth potential  for agriculture
    2. Lands  of low  agricultural growth potential, but which are frequently used for  crop production
    3. Non-agricultural rural  lands such as deserts, mountains and other lands out suitable for cultivation

Each type of growth potential, according to Mosher (177,178) requires a rural welfare program and especial agricultural growth programs to suit the potential fertility and production capability of each area

  1. Initiatives in planning should be encouraged with respect to progressive rural structure. Local initiative provides first- hand knowledge of local conditions, leads to greater participation by rural people, while national planning for agriculture growth may provide the complementary elements of a progressive rural structure. All contribute to increased and enhanced agricultural development.
  2. Establishment f a set of procedural steps to give effect to these general principles. In creating a progressive rural structure, it must be decided what is to be done, in what order, in which place, over what period of time and how much it is going to cost. A procedural step in a progressive rural structure varies for each place and depends on sound information for the area already having been obtained. Generally speaking, in developing countries, agriculture is the main source of income, its supports the bulk of population, and is the largest potential market and has the greatest growth prospects.

During the last four decades, due to rapidly growing populations and many other social and political factors, many developing countries have not been able to accumulate capital for agricultural and rural development rapidly enough.

China and Israel are two examples where major capital works have been constructed from freely given labor, and  rural people have volunteered to build roads, drains, bridges farm buildings, public baths, houses, village halls, community schools, etc.

The national plan for agricultural development must be flexible and continuous. This is to allow for changing priorities of agriculture, and changes in national policies and different related sectors of the economy.

Agricultural land expansion, water resource development, agricultural research, changing the attitudes of farmers to trust, respect and accept innovations, extension agents and service, all take time. Therefore, plans must have continuity and be devised well in advance, for the profitable and successful implementation of each sector on time.

Experience wise judgment, reliable data and surveys in preparation for agricultural development should be used. Expenditure on in0service training for extension agents, their refresher courses, or establishment of a crop and animal research station will, indirectly, increase agricultural productivity over a period of several years.

Generally, industrialization increases the number of wage earners and indirectly increases the demand for farm products, or, conversely, consumer goods produced by industry and made available in rural markets encourage farmers to produce more and sell more, in order to buy more consumer goods.

To bring about higher agricultural productivity, a number of different facilities and services must be established in a large number of places in a yearly basis with a reasonable period of time. To plan for future development of agriculture, a careful inventory of present farming practices and agri-support activities must be available.

Local initiative provides first- hand knowledge of local conditions, leads to greater participation by rural people, while national planning for agriculture growth may provide the complementary elements of a progressive rural structure. All contribute to increased and enhanced agricultural development.

~~ These are the notes from my Rural Development class @ UoM ~~

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