Economic Issues And Logic – Quick Notes

Economists study changes taking place in certain countries or individual sectors of an economy; some ask essential questions about the nature of economic choices; some address propositions to change government policies.

Leading economists develop concerns in two lectures sponsored by the American Economic Association at its annual conference. The address of the President of the Association and a welcomed lecture called the Ely Lecture, called for a founder of the Association, discuss issues of the speakers’ selection. More economists define their own concerns in seminar where they provide their work. The symposia sometimes attend to more concentrated topics than the paper headlines and also develop much deeper understanding of financial phenomena. Economists from all over the world present their newest research at the Yearly Conferences of the American Economic Association and financial firms publish annual reports that discuss significant issues for the country and the world.

The Free market Committee of the Federal Reserve looks at evidence about the rate of inflation, that is, the rate of increase in the basic price level, and the anticipated rate of inflation, and chooses to act to decrease inflation. Will it purchase bonds from investors in the open market, making use of cash from its accounts, or will it sell bonds from its reserves in exchange for investors’ cash?

A bond is a contract. The seller of the bond receives the face quantity of the bond at the time of the sale and accepts pay the holder of the bond a particular amount each quarter up until the bond matures (ends) at which time the bondholder receives the return of the face quantity of the bond. When a bond is provided, its current rate varies in the marketplace for bonds as investors’ reply to changing rate of interest. When interest rates on comparable assets increase, the holders of a given bond will certainly desire their bond to pay the exact same rate of interest as other comparable assets. A fall in the current cost of the bond indicates that the taken care of bond payment provides a higher rate of interest relative to the current price. The bond’s interest payment is dealt with; the bond’s market price differs as market rate of interest differ.

Here is the analysis. When the Federal Reserve offers bonds, the marketplace rate of bonds will certainly go down and consequently enhance the existing interest rate of the bonds. (The taken care of interest payment relative the lower market value of the bond implies the current rate of interest made by the bond is higher.) With higher interest rates, investors will certainly economize on using funds, businesses will begin fewer capital jobs, the pace of economy activity will subside, and inflation will, in time, boil down.

~~ These are notes from my UoM Computer Economics Class ~~


ADFS Timeouts – Keep Above 10 Minutes When Testing

I ran into this issue very recently when helping with an ADFS environment setup that was using a federation proxy to an internal federation service farm. The timeout desire was to be 15 minutes, after a user would have to re-authenticate to the ADFS box. To expedite the testing, we were attempting to set short intervals of timeouts, 1-2 minutes…up to 5, however nothing was timing out fumbling the proof of concept. Over around 8 minutes was timing out though. Furthermore, there was never a concrete timeout; there was always some level of skew.

This behavior seemed erratic. The problem is ADFS has a Cache Scavenge interval, which is the process for purging out-of-date cache records from the client cache. If your timeouts are configured in a pretty orthodox way, for example a ten minute timeout:

On the SharePoint box:

$sts = Get-SPSecurityTokenServiceConfig
$sts.LogonTokenCacheExpirationWindow = (New-TimeSpan –minutes 1)

And on the ADFS box:

Set-ADFSRelyingPartyTrust -TargetName Relying Party Common Name -TokenLifeTime 10

But you have your TokenLifeTime set to a ridiculously low value (it always has to be above the LoginTokenCacheExpirationWindow btw) such as two, resulting in a difference of a one minute timeout; the Cache Scavenge will never fire. Thus the issued ticket will be considered valid.

Take away is always just test with something like 10 minutes and deal with the wait time for verification.